Peyronie’s disease is a penile curvature resulting from fibrous scar tissue on the penis and bringing painful erections.

Peyronie’s disease represents a progressive, multifactorial condition of the penis characterized by the development of fibrotic penile plaques and subsequent penile deformity. Men can present with pain, penile curvature, erectile dysfunction, and penile shorting, as well as with feelings of decreased libido and low self-esteem.

There is a range of treatment options for Peyronie’s disease – from oral pharmacotherapy to injections, traction, and surgery. However, only a handful of therapy approaches showed efficacy when interrogated in randomized-controlled trials.

In any case, the principal aims of treating this condition should be to reduce penile deformity and improve sexual function, with subsequently improved quality of life. In addition, the chosen treatment modality should address the psychological implications of this disease.

Oral medical therapy

A myriad of oral agents is promoted for the early treatment of Peyronie’s disease. Some of them are potassium para-aminobenzoate or Potaba (which decreases serotonin levels with an effect on scar formation), pentoxifylline (which blocks transforming growth factor β1 and the deposition of collagen type I), tamoxifen (estrogen receptor blocker), and carnitine (acetyl coenzyme A inhibitor).

The role of vitamin E in the treatment of Peyronie’s disease has been thoroughly researched, with the general consensus that its antioxidant properties may ameliorate pain during the acute phase of the disease, without any effect on the curvature.

Injection modalities

Several various intralesional therapies have been put forward and studied for the management of Peyronie’s disease. The use of steroids and their anti-inflammatory characteristics with direct injections into plaque resulted in good responses in a range of short-term studies.

Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) therapy has been approved for patients with palpable disease and curvature of at least 30 degrees. This drug acts on collagen types I and III (which are the primary collagen found within Peyronie’s lesions) by cleaving the triple helix of the fibrils.

This is the first medication approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to its positive effects, although side effects such as hematoma, bruising or pain may appear.

Calcium channel blocker verapamil has also been used intralesionally in Peyronie’s disease, which results in improvement by inhibiting extracellular transport of collagen, as well as by upgrading collagenase activity. A majority of trials using this treatment approach have demonstrated an improvement in curvature and plaque size, as well as a reduction in pain.

Interferon therapy is also currently included in American and European guidance documents, although the data has shown a modest benefit (especially in curvature improvement). Interferon acts by affecting collagen in Peyronie’s disease by promoting collagenase activity and inhibiting the proliferation of fibroblasts.

Mechanical and non-surgical treatments

Local use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) can be used as a second or third-line treatment approach in Peyronie’s disease, with improvement in pain shown by certain randomized trials. Basically, the aim of this treatment is to fracture the calcified plaques, although the exact effect on the disease pathophysiology is not clear.

Several small studies have shown the efficacy of penile traction therapy in decreasing penile curvature, which would support the role of traction devices (but also vacuum tumescence) in the treatment of this condition. However, some drawbacks are the long duration of treatment (up to eight hours per day) and some discomfort.

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